IDP Library - Brent Cross

Reference person: Kristian Skeie (SINTEF)
Simulation report:

Reference building

Name: Brent Cross
Location: London (UK)

General data

Urban context: suburban
Climate: H&CD
Building: purpose-built
Year of construction: 1976
Year of retrofit: 2000
GLA before retrofit [m²]: 84200
GLA after retrofit [m²]: 84200
Shopping centre size: Very large
Shopping centre sub-typology: super-regional
Food store format: none
Food store vending area [m²]: 3680
Tenants vending area [m²]: 80400
Common areas and galleries [m²]: 13500
Nr of opening hours per day [h/d]: 10.0
Nr of opening days per week [d/w]: 7
Nr of closing days per year (because of holidays) [d/y]: 3

Building features

Centre design: enclosed
Shape: 0.6
Orientation: E/W
Number of levels above ground: 2
Number of underground levels: 0.0
Parking location: external multistorey carpark
Number of parking levels: -
Biologically active area [%]: 0.00%


Wall structure: masonry
Wall insulation location: out
Wall insulation material: mineral
Wall U-value [W/m²K]: 0.450
WWR - north [%]: 1
WWR - east [%]: 1
WWR - south [%]: 4
WWR - west [%]: 1
Windows U-value [W/m²K]: 2.20
Window glazing g-value [-]: 1
Basement/Floor structure: concrete slab
Basement/Floor insulation location: none
Basement/Floor insulation material:
Basement/Floor thermal transmittance [W/m²K]: 1.336
Roof structure: plane - pre-fabricated
Roof insulation location: out
Roof insulation material: mineral
Roof U-value [W/m²K]: 0.600
Vehicle accessible roof covering [%]: 0%
Green roof covering [%]: 0%
ST roof covering [%]: 0%
PV roof covering [%]: 0%
SRR [%]:
Skylight U-value [W/m²K]: 2.200
Skylight glazing g-value [-]: 0.60

Technical room

Location: vending area level
BMS lighting [Y/N]: N
BMS natural ventilation [Y/N]: N
BMS refrigeration [Y/N]: Y
BMS solar thermal system [Y/N]: N
BMS electric storage [Y/N]: N
Ventilation specific power [Wh/m³]: 0,833 - 0,97
Heat recovery thermal efficiency [%]: 40
SPF heating [-]: 0.84
SPF cooling [-]: 2.70

Common areas

Installed lighting power density [W/m²]: 15-20
Installed electric equipment power density [W/m²]: 10


Installed lighting power density [W/m²]: 38
Installed electric equipment power density [W/m²]: 4

Food store

Installed lighting power density [W/m²]: 38
Installed electric equipment power density [W/m²]: 40

Primary energy consumption

Lighting [kWh/m²-y]: 333
Refrigeration [kWh/m²-y]:
Plug loads [kWh/m²-y]: 113
HVAC [kWh/m²-y]: 223
Tot. primary energy [kWh/m²-y]: 669

Carbon emissions

Carbon emissions [tonCO2eq]: 12350


Envelope ineff.1: outdated windows
Envelope ineff. 2: Air leaks and cracks
Envelope ineff. 3:
Lighting ineff.1: Inefficient lamp technology and inefficient luminaires
Lighting ineff. 2:
Lighting ineff. 3:
Refrigeration ineff. 1:
Refrigeration ineff. 2:
Refrigeration ineff. 3:
HVAC_general general ineff.:
HVAC_general general ineff.:
HVAC_heating heating ineff.:
HVAC_heating heating ineff.:
HVAC_cooling cooling ineff.:
HVAC_cooling cooling ineff.:
HVAC_ventilation ventilation ineff.:
HVAC_ventilation ventilation ineff.:

Retrofit solution set I

Solution set I ID: 6
Primary energy consumption [kWh/m²-y]: 301
Primary energy savings [%]: 55%
Carbon emissions tonCO2eq: 8070
Carbon emission savings [%]: 65%
Investment cost [M€]: 10.851
Operational energy cost [k€/year]: 410
Pay-back time [years]: 7
Net Present Value [M€]: 17
Maintenance cost [k€/year]: 110

IDP Library