Many reports have been finalised presenting the project technologies, ranging from ventilative cooling to lighting or electric vehicle integration in shopping centres. Below is a short description for each report and the link to a non-printable pdf, still subject to the European Commission approval.
- IDP library: the Integrated Design Process library is now accessible as a free-excel-based repository from the website. The report proposes possible modifications of common retrofit practices to improve buildings’ energy performance, as well as the definition of an integrated approach to develop architectural solutions, including material, components and systems conceived in the project. The three drivers for development are: energy consumption reduction, comfort increase and building operation and maintenance costs optimisation.
The report also presents methods and tools to support IDP (energy audits, commissioning, modelling, etc.), the added value of integrating different functions (security & safety, health, smoke ventilation, etc) and the different kinds of retrofitting. The virtual IDP library is conceived to provide designers, owners and managers relevant information to start a retrofitting process by analysing the functional layout and technology features. Thanks to a simple user-friendly structure, energy audit templates to collect information can easily be created from the IDP library and used as a walk-through survey by auditors during their inspection. The data collected and benchmarking with similar archetypes allow the auditors to easily identify potential cost-effective measures to improve energy efficiency. The solution-sets developed for the project reference buildings and analysed by building energy simulation are an important source of inspiration for retrofit interventions in similar buildings. The IDP library provides a quick overview of the best solution-sets matching the buildings’ features and context.
- Ventilative cooling: Nearly all retail locations use ventilation and cooling systems to ensure adequate air exchange, for hygienic and to ensure desired indoor comfort temperatures. Considering the trend towards longer opening hours and increased number of opening days, the energy consumption due to ventilation and air-conditioning systems is expected to continue its rise across Europe. Ventilative cooling is meant as the use of natural or mechanical ventilation strategies to cool indoor spaces reducing energy consumption of cooling systems while maintaining thermal comfort. The report digs into the technologies’ state of the art, indoor air quality evaluation, technologies integration potential into architectural archetypes and three scenarios (modular climate-adaptative multifunctional façade, atrium skylights to enhance stack effect ventilation, and venti-light-tube), referring to the Spanish and Norwegian case studies.
- Daylight strategies and prototypes of combined daylight system: the reports analyse daylight exploitation in historic market halls, as well as multi-storey galleries and shops, describing the typologies and inefficiencies, strategies and implemented solutions for the Spanish and Norwegian case studies. The second report also evaluates the combined effect of daylight and artificial lighting, as installed in Norway.
- Retrofitting technologies, solutions and scenarios: Shopping centres are highly-energy-demanding buildings, due to lighting, refrigeration and HVAC systems consumption. Retrofit measures have thus a great potential for energy savings if more efficient devices are used.
The report presents the main heat recovery technologies, including an analysis of the potential of wasted and unrecovered energy, and the improvement of control strategies to enhance system performances and interactions (Daylighting, artificial lighting, ventilative cooling, RES and energy storage, etc.).
- iBEMS architecture prototype: an integrated system architecture approach leverages the information and synergies among each of the systems (HVAC, lighting, refrigeration, energy use, etc.), as well as for building correlated services (parking, RES harvesting and local energy production, etc.). The report describes the integrated control system able to manage the different building sub-systems, making facility managers able to control energy generation, consumption and energy exchange with the grid. The control architecture was designed to empower the iBEMS functionalities, allowing data collection, processing, storing and visualization. The iBEMS comprises an automation control platform together with a visualization tool allowing understanding and controlling the shopping centre.
- ICT systems platform: shopping centres include various sub-systems communicating with each other to increase performance. This report analyses a potential ICT system for shopping centres that could ease that process and make the iBEMS work properly by communicating with these sub-systems. Technical integration requirements were identified (main components, connection to building utilities, control system, communication protocols if any, and main and critical variables to be controlled.
Moreover, significant variables/parameters were analysed and defined for each technology / system, from an integration point of view.
- Scenarios and solutions for shopping mall energy grid: this report presents the smart grid concepts (electrical and thermal, to supply the HVAC systems of retail buildings) as well as scenarios (inputs, requirements and methodology for energy profiles analysis) and the ACCIONA’s micro-grid experimental campaign. Different scenarios for local smart grid solutions can be defined depending on the size of included systems, load and local energy production profiles, type of energy consumption, location, generation/storage systems, energy tariff scheme and operation/control strategies.
In the future, by reducing energy needs, shopping centres could become energy-hubs in demand response and RES-integrated local smart grids, including other buildings from the same district.
- Artificial lighting system: 42% of the final energy demand being for lighting, and light having a significant importance on the customer experience, it plays a significant role for shopping centres. Therefore, new strategies for the integration of daylight and energy efficient use of artificial lighting should be developed. Key trends in retail are presented in this report before digging into the design of new artificial lighting concepts in common mall areas and in shops. Pilot installations were run for demonstration and evaluation and are described in this report.
- Visual, emotional and energy effects of a new lighting concept: the report studies the effects of a spatial new lighting concept and questions the traditional way to evaluate brightness. A survey was performed to evaluate the different lit retail models and investigate if different light distributions result in different perceived brightness ratings.
- BIEM: Building Integrated Electric Mobility system: the report defines and introduces the green mobility concept before digging into the main features and benefits of various green mobility scenarios for shopping centres (5 for EV and 4 for hydrogen mobility scenarios). All these could be integrated within the shopping centre iBEMS (Intelligent Building Management System).
- BIEM components: investigates ways to make the use of ICT more effective to improve the communication among sub-systems in shopping centres. A prototype installation for the Building Integrated Electric Mobility System has thus been set and evaluated.
- KPIs and post-processing procedure: Real time data, collected by several sensors deployed in shopping centres, can be turned into useful information to guide building managers and tenants towards a more informed control of the indoor environment and managing of the building systems. To fulfil these, a series of sensors, meters and other instruments can be installed to characterise the building energy performances during both heating and cooling seasons. In the report, KPIs and parameters are identified for heating and cooling, thermal comfort, occupancy, normalised energy for heating and cooling, CO2 level and mechanical ventilation, refrigeration cabinet energy efficiency index, and more.
- Supervision software for continuous commissioning: this report introduces the software, a useful instrument to show buildings’ real energy performance in a holistic way (considering the energy and comfort aspects as one). The tool targets manager and owners, providing detailed information on the energy performances, comfort levels achieved, economic aspects and options to predict trends of selected outputs such as indoor temperature or energy consumption. Continuous monitoring together with data post-processing procedure can be used to verify that the actual building behaviour respects the designed energy consumption as well as guarantees adequate thermal and lighting comfort levels. The aims of the tool developed by CommONEnergy are to perform a continuous monitoring of the installed active systems, show the buildings’ real performance, verify and communicate faults or malfunctioning to operators, always operate the building at its higher levels of IEQ and efficiency and finally analyse the impact of the retrofit solutions.
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